Supervision of Beginning and Advanced Graduate Students of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Michael Helge Ronnestad, Thomas M. Skovholt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive picture of supervision for the beginning and the advanced graduate student of counseling and psychotherapy. Even though early‐level supervision is generally characterized by high levels of structure, a didactic orientation, and a skill focus, it is argued that supervision should encourage continuous reflection at all levels of expertise. For the beginning student, the impact of performance anxiety and the advantages and disadvantages of modeling are examined. For advanced students, tension in supervision is considered and the rationale for an explicit contract is explained. For both levels, the quality of the supervisory relationship is considered critical for effective supervision, 1993 American Counseling Association

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)396-405
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Counseling & Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993


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