The United States Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics data were used to determine if introduction of Big Box Stores impact entry and/or exit of internal labor markets (ILMs) and noninternal labor markets (non-ILMs). Furthermore, a Super Market Panel survey was used to study the impact of Wal-Mart on human resource practices. Results show considerable heterogeneity in human resource practices. Even with the influence of Big Box stores on grocery store operations and human resource procedures, human resource practices of existing grocery stores change very slowly. Local markets are impacted more by entry and exit of firms rather than policies and practices of existing firms.
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Earlier versions of this article have benefited from helpful comments from Charles Brown, Erica Groshen, James Hertel, Jean Kinsey, Anne Russell, and Scott Scheuler. This research uses confidential data from the Census Bureau’s Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Program (LEHD), which is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant SES-9978093 to Cornell University (Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research), the National Institute on Aging, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Disclaimer: The analysis presented here has undergone a more limited review than an official Census Bureau publication. The views expressed are attributable only to the authors and do not represent the views of the U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, program sponsors or the data providers.