The United States Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics data were used to determine if introduction of Big Box Stores impact entry and/or exit of internal labor markets (ILMs) and noninternal labor markets (non-ILMs). Furthermore, a Super Market Panel survey was used to study the impact of Wal-Mart on human resource practices. Results show considerable heterogeneity in human resource practices. Even with the influence of Big Box stores on grocery store operations and human resource procedures, human resource practices of existing grocery stores change very slowly. Local markets are impacted more by entry and exit of firms rather than policies and practices of existing firms.