17O-water and cyanide ligation by the active site iron of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Evidence for displaceable ligands in the native enzyme and in complexes with inhibitors or transition state analog

J. Whittaker, John D Lipscomb

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Abstract

Hyperfine broadening is observable in the EPR spectrum of Brevibacterium fuscum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase after lyophilization and rehydration in 17O-enriched water, demonstrating H2O ligation to the active site iron. Lack of detectable broadening in the sharp features of the spectra of three substrate complexes suggests that H2O is displaced by substrate. Water is bound in the monodentate complex with the competitive inhibitor 3-hydroxybenzoate which binds directly to the iron showing that two iron ligation sites can be occupied by nonprotein ligands. Ketonized substrate analogs which mimic a proposed transition state of the reaction cycle, 2-hydroxyisonicotinic acid N-oxide (2-OH INO) and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid N-oxide (6-OH NNO), have H2O bound in their final, bleached enzyme complexes, suggesting that these complexes are also monodentate. In contrast, a transient, initial complex of 6-OH NNO which is spectrally similar to the substrate complex, apparently does not have H2O bound. Cyanide binding occurs in two steps. The active site Fe3+ of the initial, rapidly formed, violet complex is high spin while that of the second, slowly formed, green complex is low spin; a unique state for mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes. The data suggest that the Fe-CN- and Fe-(CN-)2 complexes form sequentially. CN- binds to enzyme complexes with 2-OH INO and 6-OH NNO in one step to yield high spin Fe3+ species. In contrast, performed substrate complexes prevent Cn- binding. CN- binding eliminates the broadening due to 17O-water in the EPR spectra of both native enzyme and the enzyme-ketonized analog complexes. A model is proposed in which H2O is displaced by bidentate binding of the substrate but can potentially rebind after a subsequent substrate ketonization. The proximity of the vacatable H2O-binding sites of the iron to the site of oxygen insertion suggests, however, that this site may serve to stabilize an oxygenated intermediate during the reaction cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4487-4495
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume259
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 1 1984

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Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase
Cyanides
Ligation
Catalytic Domain
Iron
Ligands
Water
Substrates
Enzymes
Brevibacterium
Hydroxybenzoates
Paramagnetic resonance
Freeze Drying
Fluid Therapy
Binding Sites
Oxygen

Cite this

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title = "17O-water and cyanide ligation by the active site iron of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Evidence for displaceable ligands in the native enzyme and in complexes with inhibitors or transition state analog",
abstract = "Hyperfine broadening is observable in the EPR spectrum of Brevibacterium fuscum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase after lyophilization and rehydration in 17O-enriched water, demonstrating H2O ligation to the active site iron. Lack of detectable broadening in the sharp features of the spectra of three substrate complexes suggests that H2O is displaced by substrate. Water is bound in the monodentate complex with the competitive inhibitor 3-hydroxybenzoate which binds directly to the iron showing that two iron ligation sites can be occupied by nonprotein ligands. Ketonized substrate analogs which mimic a proposed transition state of the reaction cycle, 2-hydroxyisonicotinic acid N-oxide (2-OH INO) and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid N-oxide (6-OH NNO), have H2O bound in their final, bleached enzyme complexes, suggesting that these complexes are also monodentate. In contrast, a transient, initial complex of 6-OH NNO which is spectrally similar to the substrate complex, apparently does not have H2O bound. Cyanide binding occurs in two steps. The active site Fe3+ of the initial, rapidly formed, violet complex is high spin while that of the second, slowly formed, green complex is low spin; a unique state for mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes. The data suggest that the Fe-CN- and Fe-(CN-)2 complexes form sequentially. CN- binds to enzyme complexes with 2-OH INO and 6-OH NNO in one step to yield high spin Fe3+ species. In contrast, performed substrate complexes prevent Cn- binding. CN- binding eliminates the broadening due to 17O-water in the EPR spectra of both native enzyme and the enzyme-ketonized analog complexes. A model is proposed in which H2O is displaced by bidentate binding of the substrate but can potentially rebind after a subsequent substrate ketonization. The proximity of the vacatable H2O-binding sites of the iron to the site of oxygen insertion suggests, however, that this site may serve to stabilize an oxygenated intermediate during the reaction cycle.",
author = "J. Whittaker and Lipscomb, {John D}",
year = "1984",
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language = "English (US)",
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pages = "4487--4495",
journal = "Journal of Biological Chemistry",
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T1 - 17O-water and cyanide ligation by the active site iron of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Evidence for displaceable ligands in the native enzyme and in complexes with inhibitors or transition state analog

AU - Whittaker, J.

AU - Lipscomb, John D

PY - 1984/1/1

Y1 - 1984/1/1

N2 - Hyperfine broadening is observable in the EPR spectrum of Brevibacterium fuscum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase after lyophilization and rehydration in 17O-enriched water, demonstrating H2O ligation to the active site iron. Lack of detectable broadening in the sharp features of the spectra of three substrate complexes suggests that H2O is displaced by substrate. Water is bound in the monodentate complex with the competitive inhibitor 3-hydroxybenzoate which binds directly to the iron showing that two iron ligation sites can be occupied by nonprotein ligands. Ketonized substrate analogs which mimic a proposed transition state of the reaction cycle, 2-hydroxyisonicotinic acid N-oxide (2-OH INO) and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid N-oxide (6-OH NNO), have H2O bound in their final, bleached enzyme complexes, suggesting that these complexes are also monodentate. In contrast, a transient, initial complex of 6-OH NNO which is spectrally similar to the substrate complex, apparently does not have H2O bound. Cyanide binding occurs in two steps. The active site Fe3+ of the initial, rapidly formed, violet complex is high spin while that of the second, slowly formed, green complex is low spin; a unique state for mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes. The data suggest that the Fe-CN- and Fe-(CN-)2 complexes form sequentially. CN- binds to enzyme complexes with 2-OH INO and 6-OH NNO in one step to yield high spin Fe3+ species. In contrast, performed substrate complexes prevent Cn- binding. CN- binding eliminates the broadening due to 17O-water in the EPR spectra of both native enzyme and the enzyme-ketonized analog complexes. A model is proposed in which H2O is displaced by bidentate binding of the substrate but can potentially rebind after a subsequent substrate ketonization. The proximity of the vacatable H2O-binding sites of the iron to the site of oxygen insertion suggests, however, that this site may serve to stabilize an oxygenated intermediate during the reaction cycle.

AB - Hyperfine broadening is observable in the EPR spectrum of Brevibacterium fuscum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase after lyophilization and rehydration in 17O-enriched water, demonstrating H2O ligation to the active site iron. Lack of detectable broadening in the sharp features of the spectra of three substrate complexes suggests that H2O is displaced by substrate. Water is bound in the monodentate complex with the competitive inhibitor 3-hydroxybenzoate which binds directly to the iron showing that two iron ligation sites can be occupied by nonprotein ligands. Ketonized substrate analogs which mimic a proposed transition state of the reaction cycle, 2-hydroxyisonicotinic acid N-oxide (2-OH INO) and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid N-oxide (6-OH NNO), have H2O bound in their final, bleached enzyme complexes, suggesting that these complexes are also monodentate. In contrast, a transient, initial complex of 6-OH NNO which is spectrally similar to the substrate complex, apparently does not have H2O bound. Cyanide binding occurs in two steps. The active site Fe3+ of the initial, rapidly formed, violet complex is high spin while that of the second, slowly formed, green complex is low spin; a unique state for mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes. The data suggest that the Fe-CN- and Fe-(CN-)2 complexes form sequentially. CN- binds to enzyme complexes with 2-OH INO and 6-OH NNO in one step to yield high spin Fe3+ species. In contrast, performed substrate complexes prevent Cn- binding. CN- binding eliminates the broadening due to 17O-water in the EPR spectra of both native enzyme and the enzyme-ketonized analog complexes. A model is proposed in which H2O is displaced by bidentate binding of the substrate but can potentially rebind after a subsequent substrate ketonization. The proximity of the vacatable H2O-binding sites of the iron to the site of oxygen insertion suggests, however, that this site may serve to stabilize an oxygenated intermediate during the reaction cycle.

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