Substrate binding to Src: A new perspective on tyrosine kinase substrate recognition from NMR and molecular dynamics

Mehul K. Joshi, Robert A. Burton, Heng Wu, Andrew M. Lipchik, Barbara P. Craddock, Huaping Mo, Laurie L. Parker, W. Todd Miller, Carol Beth Post

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Most signal transduction pathways in humans are regulated by protein kinases through phosphorylation of their protein substrates. Typical eukaryotic protein kinases are of two major types: those that phosphorylate-specific sequences containing tyrosine (~90 kinases) and those that phosphorylate either serine or threonine (~395 kinases). The highly conserved catalytic domain of protein kinases comprises a smaller N lobe and a larger C lobe separated by a cleft region lined by the activation loop. Prior studies find that protein tyrosine kinases recognize peptide substrates by binding the polypeptide chain along the C-lobe on one side of the activation loop, while serine/threonine kinases bind their substrates in the cleft and on the side of the activation loop opposite to that of the tyrosine kinases. Substrate binding structural studies have been limited to four families of the tyrosine kinase group, and did not include Src tyrosine kinases. We examined peptide-substrate binding to Src using paramagnetic-relaxation-enhancement NMR combined with molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest Src tyrosine kinase can bind substrate positioning residues C-terminal to the phosphoacceptor residue in an orientation similar to serine/threonine kinases, and unlike other tyrosine kinases. Mutagenesis corroborates this new perspective on tyrosine kinase substrate recognition. Rather than an evolutionary split between tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases, a change in substrate recognition may have occurred within the TK group of the human kinome. Protein tyrosine kinases have long been therapeutic targets, but many marketed drugs have deleterious off-target effects. More accurate knowledge of substrate interactions of tyrosine kinases has the potential for improving drug selectivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-359
Number of pages10
JournalProtein Science
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • chemical shift perturbation
  • clustering conformational ensembles
  • ensemble averaging NMR restraints
  • kinase-substrate molecular recognition
  • multiple ligand-binding modes
  • paramagnetic relaxation enhancement
  • substrate recognition

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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  • Cite this

    Joshi, M. K., Burton, R. A., Wu, H., Lipchik, A. M., Craddock, B. P., Mo, H., Parker, L. L., Miller, W. T., & Post, C. B. (Accepted/In press). Substrate binding to Src: A new perspective on tyrosine kinase substrate recognition from NMR and molecular dynamics. Protein Science, 29(2), 350-359. https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.3777