Sub-3V, MHz-Class Electrolyte-Gated Transistors and Inverters

Fazel Bidoky, Daniel Frisbie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) have emerging applications in physiological recording, neuromorphic computing, sensing, and flexible printed electronics. A challenge for these devices is their slow switching speed, which has several causes. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of n-Type ZnO-based EGTs with signal propagation delays as short as 70 ns. Propagation delays are assessed in dynamically operating inverters and five-stage ring oscillators as a function of channel dimensions and supply voltages up to 3 V. Substantial decreases in switching time are realized by minimizing parasitic resistances and capacitances that are associated with the electrolyte in these devices. Stable switching at 1-10 MHz is achieved in individual inverter stages with 10-40 μm channel lengths, and analysis suggests that further improvements are possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was primarily supported by the MRSEC program of the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DMR-2011401. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from the NSF through the MRSEC program. Other portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS-2025124.

Publisher Copyright:


  • electrolyte-gated transistors
  • ion gel
  • propagation delay
  • switching frequency
  • ZnO

MRSEC Support

  • Primary

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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