We report on the effects of radiation on the light output of lead tungstate crystals. The crystals were irradiated by pure, intense high-energy electron and hadron beams as well as by a mixture of hadrons, neutrons and gammas. The crystals were manufactured in Bogoroditsk, Apatity (both Russia), and Shanghai (China). These studies were carried out at the 70-GeV proton accelerator in Protvino.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment|
|State||Published - Oct 21 2003|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank the IHEP management for providing us a beam line and accelerator time for our testbeam studies. Special thanks are due to Fermilab for providing the equipment for data acquisition. We would like to thank A.P. Bugorsky, O.A. Grachov, I.V. Kotov, V.P. Kubarovsky and R.Y. Zhu for useful remarks and comments on the paper draft. We are also grateful for the whole CMS-ECAL community whose experience we have widely used in our studies. This work was partially supported by the US National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.
- Color centers
- Lead tungstate
- Radiation hardness
- Scintillating crystal