NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography in conjunction with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, have contributed to the elucidation of the structural biology of protein-mediated mechanisms of heavy metal homeostasis. Among the most striking aspects of these investigations are the remarkable similarity of metal-ion-transport and sequestering systems across different species, and the need to continue the research to confirm hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms of transfers of metal ions between proteins.
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We thank R Steele, A Prantner, G Porcelli, Y Coppel and D Brabazon for their participation in the research described in this article. This research was supported by grants R823576 from the Environmental Protection Agency, DE-F607-97ER62314 from the Department of Energy, and RO1GM29754 and P41RR09793 from the National Institutes of Health.