Stretch-induced myogenin, MyoD, and MRF4 expression and acute hypertrophy in quail slow-tonic muscle are not dependent upon satellite cell proliferation

Dawn A. Lowe, Stephen E. Alway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


The objectives of these studies were to determine if (1) hypertrophy-stimulated myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) mRNA increases occur in the absense of proliferating satellite cells, and (2) acute hypertrophy occurs without satellite cell proliferation. Adult and aged quails were exposed to 0 or 2500 Rads gamma irradiation, and then wing muscles were stretch-overloaded for 3 or 7 days. MRF mRNA levels in stretch-overloaded and contralateral anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscles were determined after 3 days; hypertrophy was determined after 7 days. The elimination of proliferating cells in irradiated muscles was verified histologically by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Relative levels of MRF4, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA were elevated 100%-400% in stretch-overloaded ALD muscles from irradiated adult quails indicating that satellite cell proliferation was not a prerequisite for MRF mRNA increases. Myogenin was the only MRF that exhibited mRNA increases that were lowered by irradiation. This suggests that satellite cells contribute only to myogenin mRNA increases in non-irradiated adult muscles following 3 days of stretch-overload. Stretch-overloaded ALD muscles from aged quails had a relative increase in myogenin mRNA of ~ 150%. The myogenin increase was the same in non-irradiated and irradiated aged animals and also the same as that in stretch-overloaded muscles from irradiated adult quails. Together, these data indicate that attenuated increases in MRF expression in muscles from aged animals are attributable to lower satellite cell MRF expression. ALD muscle masses and protein contents in adult irradiated quails approximately doubled after 7 days of stretch-overload demonstrating hypertrophy despite the elimination of satellite cell proliferation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-539
Number of pages9
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 10 1999


  • Anterior latissimus dorsi
  • Japanese quail
  • Myogenic regulatory factors
  • RNA
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Stretch-overload

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