Stochastic diffusion of electrons interacting with whistler-mode waves in the solar wind

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Abstract

The effects of increasing the whistler amplitude and propagation angle are studied through a variational test particle simulation and calculations of the resonance width. While high amplitude and oblique whistlers in typical 1 AU solar wind parameters are capable of forming an isotropic population without any additional processes, anomalous interactions with quasi-parallel whistlers may be essential to the process of halo formation near the Sun. High amplitude and quasi-parallel whistlers can scatter strahl electrons to low velocities (less than the wave phase velocity) to form a halo population, as long as their amplitude is sufficiently high. We also present in detail a careful treatment of the sensitivity to initial conditions based on calculations of the phase space volume, which is necessary for numerical calculations of highly stochastic motion due to resonant interactions with large amplitude waves. Our method ensures that the volume-preserving characteristic of the Boris algorithm is consistently applied for simulations of both stochastic and non-stochastic particle motion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number012904
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank A. Artemyev, V. Roytershteyn, O. V. Agapitov, A. Micera, and G. T. Roberg-Clark for helpful discussions. They would also like to thank the reviewers for their suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. The Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) at the University of Minnesota provided the resources that contributed to the research results reported within this paper. URL: https://www.msi.umn.edu. This work was supported by NASA Grant Nos. NNX16AF80G, 80NSSC19K305, and NNN10AA08T, and NSF Grant No. AGS-1840891.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Author(s).

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