Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in the form of pure linoleic, linolenic, or arachidonic acid, were injected subcutaneously into male C57B1/6 mice daily for 10 days. Injection of 3.6 mg/day of PUFA resulted in up to a two- to threefold increase in spleen weight. Spleen cell response to mitogens was reduced by about 70%; mixed lymphocyte responses were reduced by about 90% when compared to normal values. In admixture experiments, spleen cells from PUFA treated mice suppressed the mitogen induced blastogenic response of control spleen cells by up to 90%. Fractionation of spleen cells from PUFA treated mice by G-10 adherence resulted in an enrichment of suppressive activity in the adherent cells. The suppressive effect of G-10 adherent cells was abolished by the addition of indomethacin as well as by depletion of macrophages by treatments with agents such as carbonyl iron and leucine methyl ester. These studies indicate that the administration of PUFA has marked immunosuppressive effects in mice. These effects may be related to increased prostaglandin production and appear to be mediated by a macrophage type cell.