Stereotactic neurosurgical planning, recording, and visualization for deep brain stimulation in non-human primates

Svjetlana Miocinovic, Jianyu Zhang, Weidong Xu, Gary S. Russo, Jerrold L. Vitek, Cameron C. McIntyre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Methodologies for stereotactic neurosurgery and neurophysiological microelectrode recordings (MER) in non-human primate research typically rely on brain atlases that are not customized to the individual animal, and require paper records of MER data. To address these limitations, we developed a software tool (Cicerone) that enables simultaneous interactive 3D visualization of the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurostimulation data pertinent to deep brain stimulation (DBS) research studies in non-human primates. Cicerone allows for analysis of co-registered magnetic resonance images (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, 3D brain atlases, MER data, and DBS electrode(s) with predictions of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) as a function of the stimulation parameters. We used Cicerone to aid the implantation of DBS electrodes in two parkinsonian rhesus macaques, targeting the subthalamic nucleus in one monkey and the globus pallidus in the other. Cicerone correctly predicted the anatomical position of 79% and 73% of neurophysiologically defined MER sites in the two animals, respectively. In contrast, traditional 2D print atlases achieved 61% and 48% accuracy. Our experience suggests that Cicerone can improve anatomical targeting, enhance electrophysiological data visualization, and augment the design of stimulation experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-41
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - May 15 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported by the National Institutes of Health (T32 GM07250; R01 NS-37019; R01 NS047388) and the Ohio Biomedical Research and Technology Transfer Partnership. The authors also thank Karen Zingale for assistance in the monkey surgeries and data collection, and Dr. Douglas Bowden for help with warping atlas templates in Edgewarp.


  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Microelectrode recording
  • Monkey
  • Software
  • Stereotactic neurosurgery
  • Surgical planning
  • Visualization


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