Steiner tree optimization for buffers, blockages, and bays

Charles J. Alpert, Gopal Gandham, Jiang Hu, Jose L. Neves, Stephen T. Quay, Sachin S. Sapatnekar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Timing optimization is a critical component of deep submicrometer design and buffer insertion is an essential technique for achieving timing closure. This work studies buffer insertion under the constraint that the buffers either: 1) avoid blockages or 2) are contained within preassigned buffer bay regions. We propose a general Steiner-tree formulation to drive this application and present a maze-routing-based heuristic that either avoids blockages or finds buffer bays. We show that the combination of our Steiner-tree optimization with leading-edge buffer-insertion techniques leads to effective solutions on industry designs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)556-562
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2001


  • Buffer insertion
  • Deep submicrometer
  • Interconnect
  • Performance optimization
  • Physical design
  • Routing
  • VLSI


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