Wild elephants currently occur in three populations in the lowlands of Nepal. The eastern and western animals are part of larger populations that extend into India; the central population, estimated to be 21 individuals, is geographically isolated from the other two and confined within Nepal's borders. Tracks of young elephants observed in 1979 and 1989 indicate that reproduction occurs on a regular basis. The present reserve system provides good cover and an excellent food base; the potential for population increase is good. Nepal needs to develop policy to handle human/elephant conflicts so that public support for protection of elephant populations can be maintained.