Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health status and employee productivity

Cheryl Koopman, Kenneth R. Pelletier, James F. Murray, Claire E. Sharda, Marc L. Berger, Robin S. Turpin, Paul Hackleman, Pamela Gibson, Danielle M. Holmes, Talor Bendel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

464 Scopus citations


Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company's overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and belownormal work quality-a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-20
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of occupational and environmental medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


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