Objective: To evaluate standardized lung recruitment strategy during both high frequency oscillation (HFO) and volume-targeted conventional ventilation (CV+V) in spontaneously breathing piglets with surfactant washout on pathophysiologic and inflammatory responses. Design: Prospective animal study. Setting: Research laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-four newborn piglets. Interventions: We compared pressure support and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, both with targeted tidal volumes, (PSV+V, SIMV+V) to HFO. Animals underwent saline lavage to produce lung injury, received artificial surfactant and were randomized to one of the three treatment groups (each n=8). After injury and surfactant replacement, lung volumes were recruited in all groups using a standard protocol. Ventilation continued for 6 h. Measurements and main results: Arterial and central venous pressures, heart rates, blood pressure and arterial blood gases were continuously monitored. At baseline, post lung injury and 6 h we collected serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples for proinflammatory cytokines: IL 6, IL 8 and TNF-α, and performed static pressure-volume (P/V) curves. Lungs were fixed for morphometrics and histopathologic analysis. No physiologic differences were found. Analysis of P/V curves showed higher opening pressures after lung injury in the HFO group compared to the SIMV+V group (p<0.05); no differences persisted after treatment. We saw no differences in change in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Histopathology and morphometrics were similar. Mean airway pressure (P aw) was highest in the HFO group compared to SIMV+V (p<0.002). Conclusions: Using a standardized lung recruitment strategy in spontaneously breathing animals, CV+V produced equivalent pathophysiologic outcomes without an increase in proinflammatory cytokines when compared to HFO.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received: 19 July 2003 Accepted: 27 January 2004 Published online: 2 March 2004 © Springer-Verlag 2004 This study was supported in part by a grant from the Research and Education Fund of Children’s Hospitals and Clinics–St. Paul, Minnesota. Dräger Babylog supplied by Dräger Critical Care Systems, Survanta provided by Ross laboratories.
- High frequency oscillation
- Lung injury
- Mechanical ventilation
- Respiratory failure