Stability of motivations and risk attractiveness: The adventure recreation experience

Ken Gilbertson, Alan Ewert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Since 2009, participation rates for adventure recreation that involve elements of risk have increased over 25 per cent. Using the independent variables of gender, skill level and activity type, this study investigated the effect on reported motivations in a variety of adventure recreation activities over the period of 2000-2008. In addition, this study examined the stability of these motivations over a 6-year time period. With a sample size of 801, participants engaged in four different adventure activities (rock climbing, whitewater kayaking, sea kayaking and canoeing). Exploratory factor analysis generated four factors: Social, Escape, Sensation-Seeking and Self-Image. Furthermore, using ANOVA and confirmatory factor analysis procedures, differences in motives for participation were reported between males and females and different adventure activities. Over the time period of this study, the Social and Escape factors increased in importance, while the factor Self-Image decreased and Sensation-Seeking remained constant. The findings challenge the previously held assumption that motives for participation are similar across specific activities, gender and experience level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-297
Number of pages22
JournalRisk Management
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.


  • Adventure pursuits
  • Motivational trends
  • Risk management
  • Risktaking
  • Sensation-seeking


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