Square Biphasic Pulse Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: The BiP-PD Study

Sol De Jesus, Michael S. Okun, Kelly D. Foote, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Jaimie A. Roper, Chris J. Hass, Leili Shahgholi, Umer Akbar, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Robert S. Raike, Leonardo Almeida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: Conventional Parkinson’s disease (PD) deep brain stimulation (DBS) utilizes a pulse with an active phase and a passive charge-balancing phase. A pulse-shaping strategy that eliminates the passive phase may be a promising approach to addressing movement disorders. Objectives: The current study assessed the safety and tolerability of square biphasic pulse shaping (sqBIP) DBS for use in PD. Methods: This small pilot safety and tolerability study compared sqBiP versus conventional DBS. Nine were enrolled. The safety and tolerability were assessed over a 3-h period on sqBiP. Friedman’s test compared blinded assessments at baseline, washout, and 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h post sqBIP. Results: Biphasic pulses were safe and well tolerated by all participants. SqBiP performed as well as conventional DBS without significant differences in motor scores nor accelerometer or gait measures. Conclusion: Biphasic pulses were well-tolerated and provided similar benefit to conventional DBS. Further studies should address effectiveness of sqBIP in select PD patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number368
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
StatePublished - Oct 17 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2019 De Jesus, Okun, Foote, Martinez-Ramirez, Roper, Hass, Shahgholi, Akbar, Wagle Shukla, Raike and Almeida.


  • Parkinson’s disease
  • biphasic pulse stimulation
  • deep brain stimulation
  • neuromodulation
  • pulse shape
  • therapy


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