Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients exhibit a progressive decline in lung function accelerated by intermittent pulmonary exacerbations. There are urgent needs for clinically relevant biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and management of a CF pulmonary exacerbation, in addition to providing insight into its pathophysiology. Club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is produced by bronchial epithelial cells, known to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in CF pulmonary exacerbations. Our objective was to measure sputum CCSP concentration during hospitalizations for CF pulmonary exacerbation and during quarterly outpatient clinic visits for 2. years. We explored the correlations between CCSP concentration, lung function and markers of inflammation and infection. Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal cohort study, expectorated sputum, blood and lung function data were collected from 45 CF patients during 68 hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbation and 193 clinic visits. Sputum CCSP concentration was measured and sputum and blood were assayed with a panel of inflammatory cytokines. We used a repeated measures model to compare log transformed sputum CCSP concentrations across multiple time points and to correlate those concentrations with related clinical variables. Results: Our population had a mean age of 29 (16-58 years), and a median FEV1 %predicted of 60% (18-105%). Sputum CCSP concentration was significantly lower in the initial, interim and final exacerbation samples (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0274, respectively) compared to outpatient visits. Sputum CCSP concentration was negatively associated with sputum neutrophil elastase concentration (p = 0.0373). Patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid had a significantly lower sputum CCSP concentration (p = 0.0129). Conclusion: Sputum CCSP concentration is associated with CF pulmonary exacerbation.
- Cystic fibrosis
- Lung function