Sport and Physical Activity Among Transgender, Gender Diverse, and Questioning Adolescents

Sarah M. Espinoza, Camille Brown, Amy L. Gower, Marla E. Eisenberg, Lauren E. McPherson, G. Nic Rider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: We compared rates of sport and physical activity (PA) of transgender and gender diverse adolescents and adolescents questioning their gender (TGDQ) with those of cisgender adolescents. Additionally, we tested for differences in sport and PA among TGDQ youth. Methods: We used 2019 Minnesota Student Survey data (N = 125,375). We calculated descriptive statistics, then used chi-squares and one-way analyses of variance to test for differences in involvement in sports, PA lessons, and PA between TGDQ and cisgender adolescents. Then, we used the same tests to compare participation among all TGDQ adolescents, considering their gender identity and sex assigned at birth. Results: Overall, TGDQ adolescents participated in sport and PA less than cisgender adolescents; TGD youth participated less than questioning youth. Within sex assigned at birth, participation varied by gender identity. Discussion: TGDQ adolescents need support to participate in sport and PA. Adults should remain cognizant that sport restrictions could impair TGDQ adolescents' health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-306
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Drs. Espinoza and McPherson were supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration of the US Department of Health and Human Services under National Research Service Award in Primary Medical Care grant number T32HP22239 (PI: Borowsky), Bureau of Health Workforce.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine


  • Gender diverse, and questioning adolescents
  • Physical activity
  • Sport
  • Transgender

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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