Spontaneous and Evoked Measures of Pain in Murine Models of Monoarticular Knee Pain

Hollis E. Krug, Christopher Dorman, Nicole Blanshan, Sandra Frizelle, Maren Mahowald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Pain is the main cause of disability from arthritis. There is currently an unmet need for adequate treatments for arthritis pain. Pre-clinical models are necessary and useful for studying the mechanisms of pain and for evaluating efficacy of arthritis therapies. Measuring pain in animal models of arthritis is challenging. We have developed methods for measuring evoked and spontaneous pain in three models of murine arthritis. We quantitate the evoked pain responses of mice subjected to firm palpation of a painful knee. We also evaluate spontaneous pain by the proportion of weight and the amount of time placed on each of their 4 limbs after induction of arthritis pain in one knee. Joint pain in these mouse models produces a significant increase in evoked pain responses and an alteration in weight bearing. Since mice are quadrupeds, they offload the painful limb to the contralateral limb, to the forelimbs, or some combination. These methods are simple, require minimal equipment, and are reproducible and sensitive for detecting pain. They are useful for studying both disease-modifying arthritis treatments and analgesics in mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number144
StatePublished - Feb 22 2019

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Video-Audio Media
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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