SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements

Tong Seung Tseng, Patrice A. Salomé, C. Robertson McClung, Neil E. Olszewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

136 Scopus citations

Abstract

SPINDLY (SPY) is a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana that also functions in previously undefined pathways. The N terminus of SPY contains a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 10 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). GIGANTEA (GI) was recovered from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the TPR domain. GI and SPY also interacted in Escherichia coli and in vitro pull-down assays. The phenotypes of spy and spy-4 gi-2 plants support the hypothesis that SPY functions with GI in pathways controlling flowering, circadian cotyledon movements, and hypocotyl elongation. GI acts in the long-day flowering pathway upstream of CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Loss of GI function causes late flowering and reduces CO and FT RNA levels. Consistent with SPY functioning in the long-day flowering pathway upstream of CO, spy-4 partially suppressed the reduced abundance of CO and FT RNA and the late flowering of gi-2 plants. Like gi, spy affects the free-running period of cotyledon movements. The free-running period was lengthened in spy-4 mutants and shortened in plants that overexpress SPY under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus. When grown under red light, gi-2 plants have a long hypocotyl. This hypocotyl phenotype was suppressed in spy-4 gi-2 double mutants. Additionally, dark-grown and far-red-light-grown spy-4 seedlings were found to have short and long hypocotyls, respectively. The different hypocotyl length phenotypes of spy-4 seedlings grown under different light conditions are consistent with SPY acting in the GA pathway to inhibit hypocotyl elongation and also acting as a light-regulated promoter of elongation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1550-1563
Number of pages14
JournalPlant Cell
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2004

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