Spin-torque driven switching probability density function asymmetry

Hui Zhao, Yisong Zhang, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Jordan A. Katine, Juergen Langer, Hongwen Jiang, Ilya N. Krivorotov, Kang L. Wang, Jian Ping Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


We studied the spin transfer torque (STT) driven switching voltage distribution systematically by characterizing the switching probability density function (PDF) with large statistics (10 5 trials) across a wide time scale from 5 ns to 1 μs. The skew normal distribution function is found to be a good one to fit the measured switching PDF down to low values, which would be used as a guideline to extrapolate read disturb rate (RDR) and write error rate (WER) in STT-RAM design. Moreover, the asymmetry of switching probability density function is observed to flip when the pulse width decreases. It is related to the fluctuation mechanism transition from the thermal agitation to the initial magnetization trajectory dispersion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6332615
Pages (from-to)3818-3820
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the DARPA STT-RAM program (Grant No. HR0011-09-C-0114) and NSF MRSEC Program at University of Minnesota (Grants No. DMR-0819885). The work of J.-P. Wang, H. Zhao, and Y. Zhang was supported in part by an Intel University Research Grant.


  • Magnetic tunnel junction
  • spin transfer torque switching


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