Spin-torque driven switching probability density function asymmetry

Hui Zhao, Yisong Zhang, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Jordan A. Katine, Juergen Langer, Hongwen Jiang, Ilya N. Krivorotov, Kang L. Wang, Jian Ping Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


We studied the spin transfer torque (STT) driven switching voltage distribution systematically by characterizing the switching probability density function (PDF) with large statistics (10 5 trials) across a wide time scale from 5 ns to 1 μs. The skew normal distribution function is found to be a good one to fit the measured switching PDF down to low values, which would be used as a guideline to extrapolate read disturb rate (RDR) and write error rate (WER) in STT-RAM design. Moreover, the asymmetry of switching probability density function is observed to flip when the pulse width decreases. It is related to the fluctuation mechanism transition from the thermal agitation to the initial magnetization trajectory dispersion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6332615
Pages (from-to)3818-3820
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Oct 29 2012



  • Magnetic tunnel junction
  • spin transfer torque switching

Cite this

Zhao, H., Zhang, Y., Amiri, P. K., Katine, J. A., Langer, J., Jiang, H., Krivorotov, I. N., Wang, K. L., & Wang, J. P. (2012). Spin-torque driven switching probability density function asymmetry. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 48(11), 3818-3820. [6332615]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2012.2197815