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We studied the spin-to-charge and charge-to-spin conversion at room temperature in sputtered WTe 2-x (x = 0.8) (t)/Co 20Fe 60B 20(6 nm) heterostructures. Spin pumping measurements were used to characterize the spin-to-charge efficiency, and the spin efficiency was calculated to be larger than ∼0.035. Second harmonic Hall measurements were carried out to estimate the charge-to-spin conversion ratio. We found that the system exhibits a large field-like torque (spin torque efficiency ∼0.1) and small damping-like torque (spin torque efficiency ∼0.001) compared to those reported for heavy metals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that the WTe 2-x layer is amorphous, which may enhance the spin swapping effect by inducing large interfacial spin-orbit scattering, thus contributing to a large field-like torque.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported, in part, by SMART, one of the seven centers of nCORE, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and by the UMN MRSEC program under Award No. DMR-1420013. This work utilized the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) Characterization Facility at the University of Minnesota (UMN) supported, in part, by the NSF through the UMN MRSEC program. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (Award No. NNCI-1542202). J.T.H. acknowledges support from a Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship received from the graduate school at the University of Minnesota. J.-P.W. acknowledges support from Robert Hartmann Endowed Chair Professorship.
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