Speleothem record from Pentadactylos cave (Cyprus): new insights into climatic variations during MIS 6 and MIS 5 in the Eastern Mediterranean

C. Nehme, T. Kluge, S. Verheyden, F. Nader, I. Charalambidou, T. Weissbach, S. Gucel, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, L. Satterfield, E. Eiche, Ph Claeys

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Abstract

A new paleoclimate record from Cyprus gives valuable insights into climatic variations during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6–5 for the East Mediterranean region. Two stalagmites from Pentadactylos cave in the Kyrenia mountain range (800 m altitude) in Cyprus grew from 174.6 ± 0.7 to 112.2 ± 0.5 ka BP with major hiatuses at 163–142 and 132–128 ka. During early MIS6 the stalagmite suggests through a relatively low growth rate (57–5 mm/ka) and variable, but rather negative d18O that climate conditions were highly variable on a millennial scale, with wet and cold climate conditions during Sapropel 6 deposition. At the end of MIS6 (141–132 ka), growth rate varied from 123 to 18 mm/ka and less negative δ 18 O c suggests general dry/cold conditions followed by a growth stop during H11. The onset of MIS5e is marked by the highest growth rate (217 mm/ka). The most negative δ18O values at the onset and during the Eemian wet period in Cyprus are driven mostly by the source effect (Sapropel 5) and enhanced rainfall amounts. Stable conditions during MIS 5e were rather short as shown in the growth and isotopic signal, consistent with other EM records. After 122 ka, growth decreased drastically (8–2 mm/ka) and a slow deterioration of the soil cover is suggested from continuously less negative δ13C values. Fluid inclusion d18O shows a clear shift (4–5‰) between end-MIS 6 and MIS 5e. Clumped isotopes measurements indicate kinetic effects between calcite and water of up to ∼1‰. After correction for kinetic effects using Δ47, a minimum estimate for the MIS 6–5 temperature shift in the EM is ca. 9 °C. Similarly, drastic changes in rainfall amounts are inferred from measured (fluid inclusion) and calculated water d18O.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106663
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume250
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The last G/IG shift in the EM basin is well-studied in the marine cores as well as in continental records in the southern Levant. In the EM basin, marine ?18Og.ruber curves (Emeis et al., 2003; Kallel et al., 2000, Rohling et al., 2002; Grant et al., 2012, 2016) display a well-defined orbital modulation of G/IG MIS cycles. Although the marine record follows the global pattern, the ?18Og.ruber is characterized by larger variations, reaching up to 4.5? for the MIS6/5 transition. This large shift reflects the amplification of climate change effects in the EM, due to the contribution of significant inflow of 18O-depleted water during the Sapropel S5 event (128?121 ka; Ziegler et al., 2010), together with enhanced pluvial conditions in the entire EM basin (Kallel et al., 2000). The effect of the source-water control on ?18Ocalcite, was largely demonstrated in Southern Levant speleothems for the last G/IG cycle (Bar-Matthews et al., 2019).The MIS6/5 transition is prominently recorded as a ?5.7? shift affecting ?18Ocalcite in the Pentadactylos record. This shift is close to Peqiin and Soreq oxygen shifts (5.5 and 5.7? respectively) and larger than the amplitude of the ?18Og.ruber change (source) of the Mediterranean Sea water (Grant et al., 2012) for the last G/IG cycle (Fig. 6). Both Levant and Cypriot speleothem records show a common source of moisture mostly coming from the Mediterranean Levant at the LIG onset. However, the last G/IG amplitude shift in continental records, mostly accounting for the source effect, embed other factors controlling the shift in the ?18Ocalcite, such as temperature change, rainfall amount, sea-land distance and sea-level. If the seawater ?18Og.rub shift (4.5?) accounts for the source effect (Grant et al., 2012) for the MIS 6/5 transition, the remaining 1.2? difference would be ascribed for temperature and rainfall amount change in the ?18Ocalcite signal of Pentadactylos (Table 4).This study is part of the project ?The Caves of Kyrenia Mountains Project: Research, Conservation, and Education?, supported by the European Union ?Cypriot Civil Society in Action V? program (contract number: 2015/371-989) and the US Embassy in Nicosia. Measurements were funded by the IRHIS-60 support grant (University of Rouen-Normandy), the DFG grant KL 2391/2?1 (Germany) and the European Union Civil Society in Action V program. The research was led by Ma?ara Merakl?lar? Derne?i (?Cave Enthusiasts NGO?) in Nicosia, the University of Nicosia, and by the Union Internationale de Sp?l?ologie (UIS). We thank Mustafa Merakl? for abundant logistical support and for guiding us to the entrances of most caves studied here, the Sp?l?o-club du Liban (SCL) and the Croatian Speleological Federation (HSS) for cooperation in the field and for cave surveying. Many thanks to W.F. Jones and the Bristol Exploration Club (B.E.C.) for their original documentation of Pentadaktylos Pot (Pentadaktylos Cave), and to Dave Gerrard for providing information that allowed the entrance to be re-discovered by the Ma?ara Merakl?lar? Derne?i team in 2015. Kluge acknowledges support by the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics (DFG-GSC129) and is grateful for support from the research group ?Physics of Environmental Archives? that helped to maintain the IRMS instrument funded through grant DFG-INST 35/1270-1 FUGG.

Funding Information:
This study is part of the project ‘The Caves of Kyrenia Mountains Project: Research, Conservation, and Education’, supported by the European Union “Cypriot Civil Society in Action V” program (contract number: 2015/371-989) and the US Embassy in Nicosia. Measurements were funded by the IRHIS-60 support grant (University of Rouen-Normandy), the DFG grant KL 2391/2–1 (Germany) and the European Union Civil Society in Action V program. The research was led by Mağara Meraklıları Derneği (“Cave Enthusiasts NGO”) in Nicosia, the University of Nicosia, and by the Union Internationale de Spéléologie (UIS). We thank Mustafa Meraklı for abundant logistical support and for guiding us to the entrances of most caves studied here, the Spéléo-club du Liban ( SCL ) and the Croatian Speleological Federation ( HSS ) for cooperation in the field and for cave surveying. Many thanks to W.F. Jones and the Bristol Exploration Club (B.E.C.) for their original documentation of Pentadaktylos Pot (Pentadaktylos Cave), and to Dave Gerrard for providing information that allowed the entrance to be re-discovered by the Mağara Meraklıları Derneği team in 2015. Kluge acknowledges support by the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics (DFG-GSC129) and is grateful for support from the research group “Physics of Environmental Archives” that helped to maintain the IRMS instrument funded through grant DFG- INST 35/1270-1 FUGG.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Clumped isotopes
  • Cyprus
  • Fluid inclusions
  • Last glacial/interglacial
  • Middle-east
  • Paleotemperatures
  • Speleothems
  • Stable isotopes

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