Specific Pathogen Free – A review of strategies in agriculture, aquaculture, and laboratory mammals and how they inform new recommendations for laboratory zebrafish

Katrina N. Murray, Tannia S. Clark, Myron J. Kebus, Michael L. Kent

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals are bred and managed to exclude pathogens associated with significant morbidity or mortality that may secondarily pose a risk to public health, food safety and food security, and research replicability. Generating and maintaining SPF animals requires detailed biosecurity planning for control of housing, environmental, and husbandry factors and a history of regimented pathogen testing. Successful programs involve comprehensive risk analysis and exclusion protocols that are rooted in a thorough understanding of pathogen lifecycle and modes of transmission. In this manuscript we review the current state of SPF in domestic agriculture (pigs and poultry), aquaculture (salmonids and shrimp), and small laboratory mammals. As the use of laboratory fish, especially zebrafish (Danio rerio), as models of human disease is expanding exponentially, it is prudent to define standards for SPF in this field. We use the guiding principles from other SPF industries and evaluate zebrafish pathogens against criteria to be on an SPF list, to propose recommendations for establishing and maintaining SPF laboratory zebrafish.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-93
Number of pages16
JournalResearch in veterinary science
Volume142
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Zebrafish International Resource Center is supported by the National Institutes of Health, Office of Research Infrastructure Programs in collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development ( P40 OD011021 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Disease
  • Research
  • Specific pathogen free
  • Zebrafish

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