Species richness change across spatial scales

Jonathan M. Chase, Brian J. McGill, Patrick L. Thompson, Laura H. Antão, Amanda E. Bates, Shane A. Blowes, Maria Dornelas, Andrew Gonzalez, Anne E. Magurran, Sarah R. Supp, Marten Winter, Anne D. Bjorkman, Helge Bruelheide, Jarrett E.K. Byrnes, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Robin Elahi, Catalina Gomez, Hector M. Guzman, Forest Isbell, Isla H. Myers-Smith & 5 others Holly P. Jones, Jes Hines, Mark Vellend, Conor Waldock, Mary O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Humans have elevated global extinction rates and thus lowered global scale species richness. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that losses of global species richness should always, or even often, trickle down to losses of species richness at regional and local scales, even though this relationship is often assumed. Here, we show that scale can modulate our estimates of species richness change through time in the face of anthropogenic pressures, but not in a unidirectional way. Instead, the magnitude of species richness change through time can increase, decrease, reverse, or be unimodal across spatial scales. Using several case studies, we show different forms of scale-dependent richness change through time in the face of anthropogenic pressures. For example, Central American corals show a homogenization pattern, where small scale richness is largely unchanged through time, while larger scale richness change is highly negative. Alternatively, birds in North America showed a differentiation effect, where species richness was again largely unchanged through time at small scales, but was more positive at larger scales. Finally, we collated data from a heterogeneous set of studies of different taxa measured through time from sites ranging from small plots to entire continents, and found highly variable patterns that nevertheless imply complex scale-dependence in several taxa. In summary, understanding how biodiversity is changing in the Anthropocene requires an explicit recognition of the influence of spatial scale, and we conclude with some recommendations for how to better incorporate scale into our estimates of change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOikos
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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species richness
species diversity
homogenization
corals
coral
extinction
biodiversity
case studies
bird
birds
loss

Keywords

  • anthropogenic change
  • biodiversity
  • change
  • spatial scale
  • species richness
  • time

Cite this

Chase, J. M., McGill, B. J., Thompson, P. L., Antão, L. H., Bates, A. E., Blowes, S. A., ... O'Connor, M. (2019). Species richness change across spatial scales. Oikos. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.05968

Species richness change across spatial scales. / Chase, Jonathan M.; McGill, Brian J.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Antão, Laura H.; Bates, Amanda E.; Blowes, Shane A.; Dornelas, Maria; Gonzalez, Andrew; Magurran, Anne E.; Supp, Sarah R.; Winter, Marten; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Bruelheide, Helge; Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Elahi, Robin; Gomez, Catalina; Guzman, Hector M.; Isbell, Forest; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Jones, Holly P.; Hines, Jes; Vellend, Mark; Waldock, Conor; O'Connor, Mary.

In: Oikos, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chase, JM, McGill, BJ, Thompson, PL, Antão, LH, Bates, AE, Blowes, SA, Dornelas, M, Gonzalez, A, Magurran, AE, Supp, SR, Winter, M, Bjorkman, AD, Bruelheide, H, Byrnes, JEK, Cabral, JS, Elahi, R, Gomez, C, Guzman, HM, Isbell, F, Myers-Smith, IH, Jones, HP, Hines, J, Vellend, M, Waldock, C & O'Connor, M 2019, 'Species richness change across spatial scales', Oikos. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.05968
Chase JM, McGill BJ, Thompson PL, Antão LH, Bates AE, Blowes SA et al. Species richness change across spatial scales. Oikos. 2019 Jan 1. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.05968
Chase, Jonathan M. ; McGill, Brian J. ; Thompson, Patrick L. ; Antão, Laura H. ; Bates, Amanda E. ; Blowes, Shane A. ; Dornelas, Maria ; Gonzalez, Andrew ; Magurran, Anne E. ; Supp, Sarah R. ; Winter, Marten ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bruelheide, Helge ; Byrnes, Jarrett E.K. ; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento ; Elahi, Robin ; Gomez, Catalina ; Guzman, Hector M. ; Isbell, Forest ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Jones, Holly P. ; Hines, Jes ; Vellend, Mark ; Waldock, Conor ; O'Connor, Mary. / Species richness change across spatial scales. In: Oikos. 2019.
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AU - Dornelas, Maria

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AU - Cabral, Juliano Sarmento

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AU - Gomez, Catalina

AU - Guzman, Hector M.

AU - Isbell, Forest

AU - Myers-Smith, Isla H.

AU - Jones, Holly P.

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