Spatiotemporal aspects of real-time PM2.5: Low- and middle-income neighborhoods in Bangalore, India

Adam F. Both, Arun Balakrishnan, Bobby Joseph, Julian D. Marshall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


We measured outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in a low- and a nearby middle-income neighborhood in Bangalore, India. Each neighborhood included sampling locations near and not near a major road. One-minute average concentrations were recorded for 168 days during September 2008 to May 2009 using a gravimetric-corrected nephelometer. We also measured wind speed and direction, and PM2.5 concentration as a function of distance from road. Average concentrations are 21-46% higher in the low- than in the middle-income neighborhood, and exhibit differing spatiotemporal patterns. For example, in the middle-income neighborhood, median concentrations are higher near-road than not near-road (56 versus 50 μg m-3); in the low-income neighborhood, the reverse holds (68 μg m-3 near-road, 74 μg m-3 not near-road), likely because of within-neighborhood residential emissions (e.g., cooking; trash combustion). A moving-average subtraction method used to infer local- versus urban-scale emissions confirms that local emissions are greater in the low-income neighborhood than in the middle-income neighborhood; however, relative contributions from local sources vary by time-of-day. Real-time relative humidity correction factors are important for accurately interpreting real-time nephelometer data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5629-5636
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011


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