Spatiotemporal Alterations in Gait in Humanized Transgenic Sickle Mice

Stacy Kiven, Ying Wang, Anupam Aich, Donovan A. Argueta, Jianxun Lei, Varun Sagi, Madhushan Tennakoon, Saad J. Bedros, Nils Lambrecht, Kalpna Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hemoglobinopathy affecting multiple organs and featuring acute and chronic pain. Purkinje cell damage and hyperalgesia have been demonstrated in transgenic sickle mice. Purkinje cells are associated with movement and neural function which may influence pain. We hypothesized that Purkinje cell damage and/or chronic pain burden provoke compensatory gait changes in sickle mice. We found that Purkinje cells undergoe increased apoptosis as shown by caspase-3 activation. Using an automated gait measurement system, MouseWalker, we characterized spatiotemporal gait characteristics of humanized transgenic BERK sickle mice in comparison to control mice. Sickle mice showed alteration in stance instability and dynamic gait parameters (walking speed, stance duration, swing duration and specific swing indices). Differences in stance instability may reflect motor dysfunction due to damaged Purkinje cells. Alterations in diagonal and all stance indices indicative of hesitation during walking may originate from motor dysfunction and/or arise from fear and/or anticipation of movement-evoked pain. We also demonstrate that stance duration, diagonal swing indices and all stance indices correlate with both mechanical and deep tissue hyperalgesia, while stance instability correlates with only deep tissue hyperalgesia. Therefore, objective analysis of gait in SCD may provide insights into neurological impairment and pain states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number561947
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Oct 15 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by NIH Grants Nos. U18 EB029354 and HL147562 and SCIRE Foundation to KG, Diversity Supplement 3R01HL147562-03S to SK, and University of California President’s Fellowship to DA. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2020 Kiven, Wang, Aich, Argueta, Lei, Sagi, Tennakoon, Bedros, Lambrecht and Gupta.


  • gait
  • histopathology
  • hyperalgesia
  • purkinje cell
  • sickle cell disease


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