Spatial distribution and fixed-precision sampling plans for the ladybird Harmonia axyridis in sweet corn

R. L. Koch, E. C. Burkness, W. D. Hutchison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


To improve the utilization of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), as a natural enemy in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for sweet corn, Zea mays L., fixed-precision enumerative sequential sampling plans for this coccinellid were developed and validated. Data were collected from sweet corn plots during 2000 to 2004, with means ranging from 0.02 to 11.83 H. axyridis (larvae and adults combined) per plant. Taylor's power law parameters from the regression of log variance versus log mean suggested an aggregated distribution for larvae and the combined count of larvae and adults in sweet corn. For IPM purposes, a plan was developed for H. axyridis larvae and adults to provide a desired precision level of 0.25 (SEM/mean), resulting in an average sample number of 65 whole plants. However, for the purposes of ecological or applied research (with desired precision = 0.10), an average sample number of 205 plants was necessary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)741-751
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank S. Wold-Burkness, T. Galvan, P. O®Rourke, and K. Bennett for field assistance, and E. Hodgson and M. Carrillo for reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript. This research was funded by the University of Minnesota Experiment Station and the University of Minnesota Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship awarded to R.L.K.


  • Biological control
  • Coccinellidae
  • Integrated pest management
  • Resampling software
  • Sweet corn


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