Continued economic relevancy of soybean is a function of seed quality. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the spatial association between soybean yield and quality across major US soybean producing regions, (ii) investigate the relationship between protein, oil, and yield with amino acids (AAs) composition, and (iii) study interrelationship among essential AAs in soybean seed. Data from soybean testing programs conducted across 14 US states from 2012 to 2016 period (n = 35,101 data points) were analyzed. Results indicate that for each Mg ha−1 yield increase, protein yield increased by 0.35 Mg protein ha−1 and oil yield improved by 0.20 Mg oil ha−1. Essential AA concentrations exhibit a spatial autocorrelation and there was a negative relationship between concentration of AA, protein, and oil, with latitude. There was a positive interrelationship with different degree of strength among all AAs, and the correlation between Isoleucine and Valine was the strongest (r = 0.93) followed by the correlation among Arginine, Leucine, Lysine, and Threonine (0.71 < r < 0.88). We concluded that the variability in genotype (G) x management (M) x environment (E) across latitudes influencing yield also affected soybean quality; AA, protein, and oil content in a similar manner.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The United Soybean Board (USB Project #1820-152-0108) and K-State Research and Extension (KSRE) provided funding to support this synthesis analysis. Thanks for the contribution of FIRST Seed Tests in providing the database presented in this synthesis-analysis.