Spatial and temporal distribution of fungicides applied to creeping bentgrass

Kurt R. Hockemeyer, Richard Latin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Turf managers often rely on fungicides to limit damage caused by root diseases. Because fungicides are applied to aboveground surfaces and do not move basipetally, they are effective against root pathogens only when fungitoxic concentrations migrate to the rhizosphere. This research focused on the distribution of modern fungicides in verdure, thatch, sand, and roots of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.] maintained as a putting green. The fungicides azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-[2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4- yloxy]phenyl]-3-methoxyacrylate), propiconazole (1,2,4-triazole, 1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl), pyraclostrobin (carbamic acid, [2-[[[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1Hpyrazol- 3-yl]oxy]methyl]phenyl]methoxy-,methyl ester), and thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4,'4-o-phenylenebis[3- thioallophanate]) were applied to replicate field plots in a water volume of 815 L ha-1. Plots were sampled at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application by extracting cores measuring 1.9 cm in diameter by 3.8 cm deep. Cores were separated into verdure/ thatch, sand, and roots before quantitative determination (liquid chromatography, triple quadrupole mass spectrometry) of fungicide residues. Fungicide residues in verdure/thatch declined steadily with time and support previously reported results describing fungicide depletion. Fungicides were detected in roots and sand within 5 h of application at very low (1-15 mg kg-1) concentrations and remained at low levels throughout the sampling period. Fungicides differed with respect to amounts recovered per turfgrass component. Azoxystrobin and propiconazole were associated with roots for the duration of the experiment, but pyraclostrobin was nearly undetectable. Near-zero levels of all fungicides were detected in the sand component. Half-life values in the verdure/thatch component ranged from 2.3 to 18.9 d.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-848
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume44
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

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