Despite their extensive distribution globally, recent reports indicate leopards are declining, especially in Southeast Asia. To support conservation efforts we analyzed the behavioral interactions between leopards (Panthera pardus), their prey, and tigers to determine if leopards fine-tune their activity to maximize contact with four prey species (sambar; wild boar; barking deer; banteng) and avoid tigers and if prey alter their temporal activity in response to variation in their relative abundance ratio with leopards. A lower density of sambar in the northern part of our study area and a lower density of wild boar and a higher density of tigers in the southern part allowed us to examine fine-grained differences in the behavior of leopards and their prey. We used camera trap data to investigate spatial and temporal overlap. Differences in tiger relative abundance did not appear to impact the temporal activity of leopards. Leopards had similar cathemeral activity at all sites with highest activity at dawn and dusk. This behavior appears to be a compromise to provide access to diurnal wild boar and barking deer and nocturnal sambar and banteng. Sambar showed higher temporal avoidance of leopards in the north where its RAI was lowest; in contrast, wild boar had the highest temporal avoidance in the south where its density was lowest. This is the first study in Southeast Asia to quantify spatial and temporal interactions between the leopard, its primary ungulate prey, and the tiger. It provides new insights for conserving this declining subspecies.
- spatial activity
- temporal activity