Space, money, life-stage, and the allocation of time

David M. Levinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Demographic, socioeconomic, seasonal, and scheduling factors affect the allocation of time of various activities. This paper examines those variables through exploration of the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, which has been inverted to track activity duration. Two key issues are considered. First, how much can activity duration and frequency explain travel duration? The analysis shows activity duration has positive and significant effects on travel duration, supporting recent arguments in favor of activity based models. Second, which recent trend is the main culprit in the rise in travel: suburbanization, rising personal incomes, or female labor force participation? This paper examines the share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to several primary activities: home, work, shop, and other. The data suggest that income and location have modest effects on time allocation compared with the loss of discretionary time due to working.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-171
Number of pages31
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Activity patterns
  • Time use
  • Transportation models
  • Travel behavior
  • Travel demand


Dive into the research topics of 'Space, money, life-stage, and the allocation of time'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this