Soil warming can affect plant performance by increasing soil nutrient availability through accelerating microbial activity. Here, we test the effect of experimental soil warming on the growth of the three invasive plant species Trifolium pratense (legume), Phleum pratense (grass), and Plantago lanceolata (herb) in the temperate-boreal forest ecotone of Minnesota (USA). Plants were grown from seed mixtures in microcosms of soils with three different warming histories over four years: ambient, ambient +1.7. °C, and ambient +3.4. °C. Shoot biomass of P. pratense and P. lanceolata and plant community root biomass increased significantly in soils with +3.4. °C warming history, whereas T. pratense responded positively but not significantly. Soil microbial biomass and N concentration could not explain warming effects, although the latter correlated significantly with the shoot biomass of P. lanceolata. Our results indicate that soil with a warming history may benefit some invasive plants in the temperate-boreal ecotone with potential impacts on plant community composition. Future studies should investigate the impact of warming-induced differences in soil organisms and nutrients on plant invasion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to Cindy Buschena for the logistic help and thank Silke Schroeckh, Sylvia Creutzburg, and Volkmar Haus for assistance during plant harvest. We are thankful to two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the earlier drafts of the manuscript. Nico Eisenhauer acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; Ei 862/1). Madhav P. Thakur and Nico Eisenhauer also acknowledge funding by the DFG in the frame of the Emmy Noether research group (Ei 862/2). The B4WarmED project has been funded by the US Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64456), College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences (CFANS) at the University of Minnesota, and the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund .
- Biological invasion
- Exotic plants
- Legacy effects
- Temperate-boreal ecotone