SOME ASPECTS OF QUANTITATIVE VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS IN THE SEM.

P. R. Thomas, K. G. Gopinathan, A. Gopinath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

A discussion is presented of voltage measurement in the SEM using the retarding grid analyzer for secondary electron energy analysis. A model for the system is proposed and used for the consideration of stability and noise, a description of the sampling system for high-frequency measurements is given, and the problems of measurements through passivation layers are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)479-499
Number of pages21
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods
StatePublished - Jan 1 1980

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