A discussion is presented of voltage measurement in the SEM using the retarding grid analyzer for secondary electron energy analysis. A model for the system is proposed and used for the consideration of stability and noise, a description of the sampling system for high-frequency measurements is given, and the problems of measurements through passivation layers are discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||21|
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1980|