Soil texture and precipitation influence optimal time of nitrogen fertilization for corn

Jared A. Spackman, Fabián G. Fernandez, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Daniel E. Kaiser, Gabriel Paiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In-season N fertilization is increasingly being used as a management strategy to reduce risk of N loss to the environment. This study evaluated the optimal timing for a split N fertilizer application in corn (Zea mays L.) across different environments and soil textural classes in Minnesota. Treatments consisted of pre-plant (PP) urea applied at 0 to 270 or 315 kg N ha–1 on increments of 45 kg N ha–1 and five split applications (SA) of 45 kg N ha–1 urea ammonium nitrate as starter fertilizer and 90 kg N ha–1 of urea with an urease inhibitor applied at the V2, V4, V6, V8, or V12 stage of corn phenological development. Site-years were grouped according to grain yield response to fertilizer timing. Irrigated coarse-textured soils produced 1.5- to 1.9-fold greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V4 to V12 due to improved synchrony of N availability to crop demand and reduced potential for NO3–N leaching. Rainfed, fine-textured soils had mixed results. Site-years receiving welldistributed precipitation produced greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V2 to V8, but early season N deficiency reduced yield for the V12 application. Site-years with limited precipitation during the late vegetative through grain filling stages of corn had no improvement in grain yield or N use efficiencies for SA because dry soil conditions likely interfered with root development and made N fertilizer positionally unavailable to the crop. This study highlights that the success of SA is largely dictated by soil texture and precipitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2018-2030
Number of pages13
JournalAgronomy Journal
Volume111
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Fingerprint

soil texture
split application
grain yield
corn
fertilizers
nitrogen
nitrogen fertilizers
urea
starter fertilizers
urease inhibitors
urea ammonium nitrate
fine-textured soils
coarse-textured soils
irrigated soils
crops
filling period
soil quality
leaching
fertilizer application
Zea mays

Cite this

Soil texture and precipitation influence optimal time of nitrogen fertilization for corn. / Spackman, Jared A.; Fernandez, Fabián G.; Coulter, Jeffrey A.; Kaiser, Daniel E.; Paiao, Gabriel.

In: Agronomy Journal, Vol. 111, No. 4, 01.07.2019, p. 2018-2030.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f52e61753dff4527b33967403854ae41,
title = "Soil texture and precipitation influence optimal time of nitrogen fertilization for corn",
abstract = "In-season N fertilization is increasingly being used as a management strategy to reduce risk of N loss to the environment. This study evaluated the optimal timing for a split N fertilizer application in corn (Zea mays L.) across different environments and soil textural classes in Minnesota. Treatments consisted of pre-plant (PP) urea applied at 0 to 270 or 315 kg N ha–1 on increments of 45 kg N ha–1 and five split applications (SA) of 45 kg N ha–1 urea ammonium nitrate as starter fertilizer and 90 kg N ha–1 of urea with an urease inhibitor applied at the V2, V4, V6, V8, or V12 stage of corn phenological development. Site-years were grouped according to grain yield response to fertilizer timing. Irrigated coarse-textured soils produced 1.5- to 1.9-fold greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V4 to V12 due to improved synchrony of N availability to crop demand and reduced potential for NO3–N leaching. Rainfed, fine-textured soils had mixed results. Site-years receiving welldistributed precipitation produced greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V2 to V8, but early season N deficiency reduced yield for the V12 application. Site-years with limited precipitation during the late vegetative through grain filling stages of corn had no improvement in grain yield or N use efficiencies for SA because dry soil conditions likely interfered with root development and made N fertilizer positionally unavailable to the crop. This study highlights that the success of SA is largely dictated by soil texture and precipitation.",
author = "Spackman, {Jared A.} and Fernandez, {Fabi{\'a}n G.} and Coulter, {Jeffrey A.} and Kaiser, {Daniel E.} and Gabriel Paiao",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2134/agronj2018.09.0605",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "111",
pages = "2018--2030",
journal = "Agronomy Journal",
issn = "0002-1962",
publisher = "American Society of Agronomy",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Soil texture and precipitation influence optimal time of nitrogen fertilization for corn

AU - Spackman, Jared A.

AU - Fernandez, Fabián G.

AU - Coulter, Jeffrey A.

AU - Kaiser, Daniel E.

AU - Paiao, Gabriel

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - In-season N fertilization is increasingly being used as a management strategy to reduce risk of N loss to the environment. This study evaluated the optimal timing for a split N fertilizer application in corn (Zea mays L.) across different environments and soil textural classes in Minnesota. Treatments consisted of pre-plant (PP) urea applied at 0 to 270 or 315 kg N ha–1 on increments of 45 kg N ha–1 and five split applications (SA) of 45 kg N ha–1 urea ammonium nitrate as starter fertilizer and 90 kg N ha–1 of urea with an urease inhibitor applied at the V2, V4, V6, V8, or V12 stage of corn phenological development. Site-years were grouped according to grain yield response to fertilizer timing. Irrigated coarse-textured soils produced 1.5- to 1.9-fold greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V4 to V12 due to improved synchrony of N availability to crop demand and reduced potential for NO3–N leaching. Rainfed, fine-textured soils had mixed results. Site-years receiving welldistributed precipitation produced greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V2 to V8, but early season N deficiency reduced yield for the V12 application. Site-years with limited precipitation during the late vegetative through grain filling stages of corn had no improvement in grain yield or N use efficiencies for SA because dry soil conditions likely interfered with root development and made N fertilizer positionally unavailable to the crop. This study highlights that the success of SA is largely dictated by soil texture and precipitation.

AB - In-season N fertilization is increasingly being used as a management strategy to reduce risk of N loss to the environment. This study evaluated the optimal timing for a split N fertilizer application in corn (Zea mays L.) across different environments and soil textural classes in Minnesota. Treatments consisted of pre-plant (PP) urea applied at 0 to 270 or 315 kg N ha–1 on increments of 45 kg N ha–1 and five split applications (SA) of 45 kg N ha–1 urea ammonium nitrate as starter fertilizer and 90 kg N ha–1 of urea with an urease inhibitor applied at the V2, V4, V6, V8, or V12 stage of corn phenological development. Site-years were grouped according to grain yield response to fertilizer timing. Irrigated coarse-textured soils produced 1.5- to 1.9-fold greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V4 to V12 due to improved synchrony of N availability to crop demand and reduced potential for NO3–N leaching. Rainfed, fine-textured soils had mixed results. Site-years receiving welldistributed precipitation produced greater grain yield when fertilizer was split applied from V2 to V8, but early season N deficiency reduced yield for the V12 application. Site-years with limited precipitation during the late vegetative through grain filling stages of corn had no improvement in grain yield or N use efficiencies for SA because dry soil conditions likely interfered with root development and made N fertilizer positionally unavailable to the crop. This study highlights that the success of SA is largely dictated by soil texture and precipitation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071013642&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071013642&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2134/agronj2018.09.0605

DO - 10.2134/agronj2018.09.0605

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85071013642

VL - 111

SP - 2018

EP - 2030

JO - Agronomy Journal

JF - Agronomy Journal

SN - 0002-1962

IS - 4

ER -