Social inclusion and community participation of individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities

Angela N Amado, Roger J. Stancliffe, Mary McCarron, Philip McCallion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations


As more individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities are physically included in community life, in schools, neighborhoods, jobs, recreation, and congregations, the challenge of going beyond physical inclusion to true social inclusion becomes more apparent. This article summarizes the status of the research about community participation and social inclusion, summarizes some debates and points of contention, notes emerging research issues, and highlights needed areas of research. It is clear that most research on these topics has been conducted with individuals who are in paid formal services, and there are great needs for understanding the community participation of individuals who live on their own or with their families, as well as researching social inclusion by focusing on the attitudes and experiences of community members themselves, not just individuals with disabilities and paid providers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)360-375
Number of pages16
JournalIntellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013


  • Community inclusion
  • Community living
  • Community membership
  • Inclusion
  • Integration
  • Social inclusion


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