Social functioning among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome and their sisters

Michèle M.M. Mazzocco, Thomas Baumgardner, Lisa S. Freund, Allan L. Reiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Social behaviors among two genetically homogeneous groups - girls with fragile X (fraX) or Turner syndrome (TS) - were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction in girls with these disorders. Using a sibling pair design, girls with fraX or TS were compared with their own sisters on measures of IQ and social functioning. The 8 girls with fraX and the 9 girls with TS had lower FSIQ scores and higher ratings of social and attention problems relative to their own sisters. Girls with fraX also had higher ratings of withdrawn behaviors, relative to their own sisters. The unaffected sisters were not rated as demonstrating any difficulties in these areas, relative to controls. Correlations between problem ratings and FSIQ were not statistically significant. Although these preliminary findings do not indicate a lack of familial impact on social development in girls with either disorder, the results provide preliminary evidence that social dysfunction reported for girls with fraX or TS cannot be attributed solely, nor primarily, to global aspects of the family environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-517
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Support for this research was obtained from National Institutes for Health grants MH01142, HD25806, and NS35359.


  • Fragile X
  • Social development
  • Turner syndrome


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