Emotion perception and perspective-taking skills were examined among women with or without the fragile X gene. The performance of 56 control women was compared to the performance of 46 women who were carriers of the fragile X gene. Twenty-seven of the carrier women had 0-1% cytogenetic expression and did not appear affected by the gene, whereas the remaining 19 women had ≥2% cytogenetic expression and did appear affected by the gene. The emotion perception task employed was one for which deficits have been reported among individuals with autism. The results show that performance on this emotion-perception test and the perspective-taking measure was significantly related to full-scale IQ scores, but not to fragile X group status when effects of IQ were removed. Thus the results do not support the hypothesis that perspective-taking or emotion perception deficits are a component of the fragile X phenotype in females and represent an important differentiation between fragile X and autism.