The transition from the Pueblo III to the Pueblo IV period (A.D. 1100–1400) in the American Southwest involved marked population aggregation. Diverse economic, political, and religious factors must have played a role in the integration of these populations. Bailey Ruin, Bryant Ranch, and Pottery Hill, three sites in the Silver Creek drainage of east-central Arizona, show increased hunting of large mammals during this transition. This trend has elsewhere been attributed to hunting specialization due to local resource depletion and perhaps the need for a seasonal supplement to maize-based diets, but these factors do not adequately explain the data here. In fact, the regional reliance on rabbit protein suggests that hunting larger game was not necessary to meet dietary needs in an environment where small game is a reliable food source and artiodactyls are rare. Rather, the increased proportion of large mammals in the Silver Creek area faunal assemblages seems to reflect larger issues of social reorganization. Rituals aimed at community integration and individual attempts to gain authority and prestige were focused on communal hunts, feasts, and the production of ritual paraphernalia through large-game hunting.