Background. There is growing evidence that social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDH) play a substantial effect in a wide range of health outcomes. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely employed to conduct observational studies in the age of artificial intelligence (AI). However, there has been limited review into how to make the most of SBDH information from EHRs using AI approaches. Methods. A systematic search was conducted in six databases to find relevant peer-reviewed publications that had recently been published. Relevance was determined by screening and evaluating the articles. Based on selected relevant studies, a methodological analysis of AI algorithms leveraging SBDH information in EHR data was provided. Results. Our synthesis was driven by an analysis of SBDH categories, the relationship between SBDH and healthcare-related statuses, natural language processing (NLP) approaches for extracting SBDH from clinical notes, and predictive models using SBDH for health outcomes. Discussion. The associations between SBDH and health outcomes are complicated and diverse; several pathways may be involved. Using NLP technology to support the extraction of SBDH and other clinical ideas simplifies the identification and extraction of essential concepts from clinical data, efficiently unlocks unstructured data, and aids in the resolution of unstructured data-related issues. Conclusion. Despite known associations between SBDH and diseases, SBDH factors are rarely investigated as interventions to improve patient outcomes. Gaining knowledge about SBDH and how SBDH data can be collected from EHRs using NLP approaches and predictive models improves the chances of influencing health policy change for patient wellness, ultimately promoting health and health equity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
YW was supported by the Mayo Clinic Center for Health Equity and Community Engagement Research Award. RZ was partially supported by the National Institutions of Health’s National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health (NCCIH), the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and National Institute on Aging (NIA) grant number R01AT009457 (PI: Zhang).
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