Bone resorption and organelle homeostasis in osteoclasts require specialized intracellular trafficking. Sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) is a member of the sorting nexin family of proteins that plays crucial roles in cargo sorting in the endosomal pathway by its binding to phosphoinositide(3)phosphate (PI3P) localized in early endosomes. We and others have shown previously that the gene encoding sorting Snx10 is required for osteoclast morphogenesis and function, as osteoclasts from humans and mice lacking functional Snx10 are dysfunctional. To better understand the role and mechanisms by which Snx10 regulates vesicular transport, the aim of the present work was to study PIKfyve, another PI3P-binding protein, which phosphorylates PI3P to PI(3,5)P2. PI(3,5)P2 is known to be required for endosome/lysosome maturation, and the inhibition of PIKfyve causes endosome enlargement. Overexpression of Snx10 also induces accumulation of early endosomes suggesting that both Snx10 and PIKfyve are required for normal endosome/lysosome transition. Apilimod is a small molecule with specific, nanomolar inhibitory activity on PIKfyve but only in the presence of key osteoclast factors CLCN7, OSTM1, and Snx10. This observation suggests that apilimod's inhibitory effects are mediated by endosome/lysosome disruption. Here we show that both Snx10 and PIKfyve colocalize to early endosomes in osteoclasts and coimmunoprecipitate in vesicle fractions. Treatment with 10 nM apilimod or genetic deletion of PIKfyve in cells resulted in the accumulation of early endosomes, and in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, lysosome formation, and secretion of TRAP from differentiated osteoclasts. Snx10 and PIKfyve also colocalized in gastric zymogenic cells, another cell type impacted by Snx10 mutations. Apilimod-specific inhibition of PIKfyve required Snx10 expression, as it did not inhibit lysosome biogenesis in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts. These findings suggest that Snx10 and PIKfyve are involved in the regulation of endosome/lysosome homeostasis via the synthesis of PI(3,5)P2 and may point to a new strategy to prevent bone loss.
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