Smoking-related symptomatology in pregnant smokers during ad libitum smoking and following overnight smoking abstinence

Sharon Allen, Katherine Harrison, Ashley Petersen, Jane Goodson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Current literature suggests there may be a relationship between sex hormones, which dramatically increase during pregnancy, and nicotine use behaviors. We hypothesized that higher progesterone and progesterone:estradiol ratio (P/E2) would be associated with less smoking-related symptomatology (SRS), better mood and fewer cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) during ad libitum smoking and following overnight abstinence in pregnant women. Associations between SRS, mood, smoking behavior and sex hormones were estimated using multiple linear regression with adjustment for CPD and pregnancy trimester. Results: There were 35 second trimester and 42 third trimester participants. Participants mean age was 26.2 (SD: 4.1), they smoked 11.3 CPD (SD: 4.4) and the mean nicotine dependence score was 4.94 (SD: 1.98). There were no statistically significant associations between progesterone levels, estradiol levels, or the P/E2 ratio and SRS or mood measures during ad libitum smoking or following overnight abstinence in this sample of pregnant women. Similarly, there were no associations between sex hormone levels and number of CPD smoked during the ad libitum period. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant associations between sex hormones and SRS, mood or smoking behavior in this sample of pregnant women. Trial registration

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number473
JournalBMC Research Notes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We extend our thanks to Brittany Niesen for her dedication to recruitment and data collection. We also thank Dr. Frank Stanczyk, a Professor of Research, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Preventive Medicine and Director of the Reproductive Endocrine Research Laboratory at the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine, for his expertise in the analysis of serum hormone samples. This work was supported by MEI research who provided data management and development support for our EMA data collection tools.

Funding Information:
Support for this project was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA08075). The funding agency did not participate in the design of the study, in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or in the writing of this manuscript. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).


  • Pregnancy
  • Sex hormones
  • Smoking-related symptomatology
  • Tobacco


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