Objective. The first aim of the present investigation was to examine cross-sectional differences between smokers who engage in additional health risk behaviors (i.e., high-fat diets and low physical activity levels) and those who do not that could affect readiness for smoking cessation treatment and treatment prognosis. The second aim was to examine prospective associations between risk factor status and smoking outcomes (i.e., cessation and quit attempts). Design. Data were derived from baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys for the SUCCESS project, a randomized trial of worksite smoking interventions conducted in 24 worksites in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Included in the analyses were 2,149 study participants who reported smoking at baseline. Methods. Current smokers were categorized into one of three 'risk groups': the '1 additional risk factor' group (i.e., either low physical activity level or high dietary fat intake), the '2 additional risk factor' group (i.e., both low physical activity and high dietary fat intake), and the 'smoker only' group (i.e., neither low physical activity nor high dietary fat intake). Mixed model regression analyses examined cross-sectional associations between risk group status and baseline demographic variables, smoking dependency, social environments for smoking, and health problems. Prospective associations between baseline risk group status and 1-year follow-up cessation attempts and quits were also examined. Results. At baseline, risk factor status was associated with smoking dependency for both men and women. Women smokers with at least one additional risk factor reported a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day, higher Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence scores, and lower self-efficacy for refraining from smoking in a variety of situations compared with smokers with no additional risk factors. Men smokers with at least one additional risk factor reported higher Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence scores compared with smokers with no additional risk factors. Women smokers with at least one additional risk factor were more likely to report being encouraged to quit by co-workers compared with smokers with no other risk factors. No relationship between risk factor status and social pressure to quit was observed among men. Prospective analyses indicated that baseline risk factor status was marginally related to smoking outcome at 1-year follow-up; however, these relationships were attenuated considerably when controlling for smoking dependence. Relationships between risk factor status and smoking outcomes were stronger for men. Conclusion. Results indicated that the presence of multiple health risk behaviors was related to more serious problems with smoking. However, the presence of additional risk factors did not strongly affect prognosis for smoking cessation. (C) 2000 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Grant HL52909 from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Health behaviors
- Smoking cessation