Smokeless tobacco reduction: Preliminary study of tobacco-free snuff versus no snuff

Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Jon O. Ebbert, Amanda Edmonds, Casey Li, Haiying Lin, Chap Le, Stephen S. Hecht

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13 Scopus citations


This preliminary study examined the effects of tobacco-free snuff (intervention, n=52) compared with no snuff (control, n=54) for reducing tobacco use among smokeless tobacco (ST) users not interested in quitting. Both groups received behavioral instructions, and intervention subjects received tobacco-free snuff for 8 weeks. Participants were required to reduce their intake by 50% during the first 4 weeks and by 75% during the subsequent 4 weeks. Follow-up occurred at 12 weeks. Significant reductions were observed from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) for both treatment groups in the amount of ST use (tins/week and dips/day, p<.001); mean urinary cotinine (p<.001); and mean urinary total NNAL, a carcinogen biomarker (p<.001). At week 8 the intervention resulted in a lower mean total NNAL (p=.048). Compared with the control condition, the intervention resulted in a higher percentage of subjects achieving at least a 50% reduction in cotinine (p=.046) and total NNAL (p=.002) at the end of treatment, more quit attempts (p=.030), and a longer mean duration of abstinence (p=.013) through follow-up. An ST reduction intervention incorporating tobacco-free snuff could potentially reduce risk for ST-related disease beyond that achieved with no snuff by increasing the number of patients who achieve significant reductions in carcinogen exposure and, more important, by facilitating tobacco abstinence by increasing quit attempts and abstinence duration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008


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