This study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and divorce history in a national probability sample of adults. The primary hypothesis was that cigarette smoking would be associated with a greater likelihood of having been divorced. Findings indicated that adults who currently smoke cigarettes are 53 percent more likely to have experienced divorce than those who do not smoke. Although these cross-sectional findings do not indicate the causal direction between divorce and smoking, the authors speculate that psychological and family of origin factors associated with initiating and maintaining smoking may predispose individuals to marital instability. The authors call for more attention to the family systems aspects of smoking.