Small cysteine-rich peptides resembling antimicrobial peptides have been under-predicted in plants

Kevin A Silverstein, William A. Moskal, Hank C. Wu, Beverly A. Underwood, Michelle A. Graham, Christopher D. Town, Kathryn A. VandenBosch

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343 Scopus citations


Multicellular organisms produce small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides as an innate defense against pathogens. While defensins, a well-known class of such peptides, are common among eukaryotes, there are other classes restricted to the plant kingdom. These include thionins, lipid transfer proteins and snakins. In earlier work, we identified several divergent classes of small putatively secreted cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) in legumes [Graham et al. (2004)Plant Physiol. 135, 1179-97]. Here, we built sequence motif models for each of these classes of peptides, and iteratively searched for related sequences within the comprehensive UniProt protein dataset, the Institute for Genomic Research's 33 plant gene indices, and the entire genomes of the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana, and the model monocot and crop species, Oryza sativa (rice). Using this search strategy, we identified ∼13 000 plant genes encoding peptides with common features: (i) an N-terminal signal peptide, (ii) a small divergent charged or polar mature peptide with conserved cysteines, (iii) a similar intron/exon structure, (iv) spatial clustering in the genomes studied, and (v) overrepresentation in expressed sequences from reproductive structures of specific taxa. The identified genes include classes of defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins, and snakins, plus other protease inhibitors, pollen allergens, and uncharacterized gene families. We estimate that these classes of genes account for ∼2-3% of the gene repertoire of each model species. Although 24% of the genes identified were not annotated in the latest Arabidopsis genome releases (TIGR5, TAIR6), we confirmed expression via RT-PCR for 59% of the sequences attempted. These findings highlight limitations in current annotation procedures for small divergent peptide classes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)262-280
Number of pages19
JournalPlant Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Cysteine-rich peptides
  • Defensins
  • Lipid transfer protein
  • RALF
  • Thionin


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