Six degree-of-freedom haptic rendering using spatialized normal cone search

David E. Johnson, Peter Willemsen, Elaine Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


This paper describes a haptic rendering algorithm for arbitrary polygonal models using a six degree-of-freedom haptic interface. The algorithm supports activities such as virtual prototyping of complex polygonal models and adding haptic interaction to virtual environments. The underlying collision system computes local extrema in distance between the model controlled by the haptic device and the rest of the scene. The haptic rendering computes forces and torques on the moving model based on these local extrema. The system is demonstrated on models with tens of thousands of triangles and developed in an accessibility application for finding collision-free paths.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)661-670
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge support in part from the following grants: US National Science Foundation (NSF) IIS-0428856, NSF CDA-96-23614, and US Army Research Office DAAD 19-01-1-0013. Also, the authors would like to thank the Gamma group at the University of North Carolina for making their code available.


  • Computer-aided design
  • Haptic I/O
  • Virtual reality


Dive into the research topics of 'Six degree-of-freedom haptic rendering using spatialized normal cone search'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this