Situational factors related to smoking behavior in the natural environment were studied. Six subjects smoked all cigarettes over 10 days with a portable, electronic recording device which measured a number of frequency and time-based features of smoking. Subjects also coded activities and internal states associated with each cigarette smoked. Across subjects, there were considerable differences in the distribution of cigarettes smoked across the activity and internal states categories. Within subjects, all subjects showed variation in measures of smoking topography (number of puffs/cigarette, mean puff duration, total puff time/cigarette) as a function of situational variables. It did not appear that pharmacological factors could fully account for the substantial situational differences found. The results suggest that different factors may be involved in the control of different aspects of smoking topography.