Sites of extranodal involvement are prognostic in patients with stage 1 follicular lymphoma

Aditi Shastri, Murali Janakiram, Ioannis Mantzaris, Yiting Yu, Jaime S. Londono, Amit K. Verma, Stefan K. Barta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objectives: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent B cell lymphoma in the United States and a quarter of patients present with stage I disease. The objective of this study was to examine if primary site of disease influences survival in early stage lymphoma. Results: The most common extranodal primary sites were the integumentary system (8%), followed by the GI tract (6.4%) and head & neck (5.6%). We stratified patients into a pre-rituximab era (1983-1998) and the rituximab era (1999-2011). In multivariable analysis, integumentary disease was associated with better overall survival (Hazard Ratio [HR], 0.77; Confidence Interval [CI], 0.66-0.9) while primary site FL of the nervous system (HR, 2.40; CI, 1.72-3.38) and the musculoskeletal system (HR, 2.14; CI, 1.44-3.18) were associated with worse overall survival when compared to primary nodal FL. Treatment in the pre-rituximab era, male gender and older age at diagnosis were associated with worse survival. Methods: We queried the SEER database from 1983 to 2011. We included all adult patients (> 18 years) with histologically confirmed stage I FL, active follow-up, and a single primary tumor. A total of 9,865 patients met eligibility criteria, with 2520 (25%) having an extranodal primary site. We classified the primary sites by organ or anatomic location into 11 sites. Conclusion: Primary site of disease is a prognostic factor for patients with early stage FL and may help identify subsets of patients that could benefit from early, aggressive treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78410-78418
Number of pages9
Issue number45
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Shastri et al.


  • Epidemiology and End Results database
  • Extranodal disease
  • Follicular lymphoma
  • Prognosis
  • Surveillance


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